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Delegates are invited to meet and discuss with the poster presenters in this topic directly after the session 'Storage & grid integration' taking place on Wednesday, 12 March 2014 at 16:30 -18:00. The meet-the-authors will take place in the poster area.

Rafael Zubiaur Barlovento Recursos Naturales, S.L., Spain
Carlos Alvarez (1) F P
(1) Barlovento Recursos Naturales, S.L., Madrid, Spain

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Wind power penetration into the power grid based on different wind turbine technologies


Originally, wind energy presented no control of active or reactive power. For the TSOs, it was especially significant that the wind turbines of those days did not present capabilities for withstand voltage disturbances on the network such as voltage dips. This fact limited the integration of wind power into the power grid.


The simulations have been carried out taking into account a real wind farm scheme with real wind turbine models. Several perturbations have been considered. In the simulations, the perturbations increase in each step up to reach the critical limit of the wind farm that lead it to the disconnection. Faults, frequency deviations, overvoltages, phase jumps, etc. have been considered. The different wind farms react in different ways being the aim of the research.

Main body of abstract

Taking into account the Spanish case, pioneer compliance requirement LVRT capability with the PO 12.3, it was demonstrated that the evolution of technology enhanced the reliability of the power system thereby increasing the integration of wind power into the power grid. In fact, the wind turbines did not only present the LVRT capability but also they supported the power grid by injecting reactive power helping the recovery of the voltage dip

The recent technological development has led the wind turbine capacity beyond. To the control capability of voltage – reactive power, the control frequency – active power joined.
Wind energy goes from being a limiting factor to an asset that can provide complementary services for increasing the system stability.
In the present work, we will carry out a comparative study of different technologies. This will involve a set of simulations comparing the system response in each case considering the following technologies:
• Squirrel cage induction generators
• Doubly fed generators capacity reactive power regulation
• Full converter generators capable of both active power regulation and reactive power with frequency variations.
Finally, we will conduct a review of the state of the art of this topic in several international standards, e.g. IEC 61400-21, FGW TR3 and future European network code ENTSOE.


As a conclusion, this study proved through several simulations of wind farms with different technologies how the improvement on the wind turbine technology lead to a bigger wind power penetration level without risking the stability of the power system. Through increasing the abilities of the wind turbines, it will be possible to count on more and more green energy in substitution of conventional generation.

Learning objectives
With the results of the study presented, it can be learnt that the requirements specified on the most important grid codes and guidelines about wind power must be focused on the improvement of the skills of the renewable energy making this energy capable of substituting as far as possible conventional energy.