Conference programme

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Delegates are invited to meet and discuss with the poster presenters during the poster presentation sessions between 10:30-11:30 and 16:00-17:00 on Thursday, 19 November 2015.

Lead Session Chair:
Stephan Barth, ForWind - Center for Wind Energy Research, Germany
Kai Frolic Pager Power Limited, United Kingdom
Kai Frolic (1) F Danny Scrivener (1) Mike Watson (1)
(1) Pager Power Limited, Great Cornard, United Kingdom

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Presenter's biography

Biographies are supplied directly by presenters at EWEA 2015 and are published here unedited

Kai has a masters in physics from the University of Surrey. He is an expert in modelling wind farm television interference and has extensive experience resolving wind farm aviation issues including lighting - dealing with the specific requirements of the UK MOD. Hi is the senior technical analyst at Pager Power where he has worked since 2008.


Poster Download poster (6.71 MB)


A pragmatic approach to designing wind farm lighting schemes


This paper presents a practical approach to designing aviation lighting schemes for wind farms. A review of national and international published guidance is presented. The conclusions within this paper have been informed by practical experience of designing wind farm lighting schemes in the UK and overseas.

Guidance pertaining to lighting schemes for wind farms has been published by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). In some countries, national organisations have also published guidance regarding lighting schemes – one example is the Civil Aviation Authority in the United Kingdom. This paper presents a review of published guidance with respect to lighting of wind farms. The paper also presents examples of existing wind farms in Europe in order to illustrate how lighting options have been applied in the real world.


Formal guidance regarding lighting wind farms does not always provide definitive rules on whether lighting is required and what type is required. Therefore, when designing a lighting scheme, a practical approach based on the ambient environment and infrastructure is required. A comprehensive approach to designing a wind farm lighting scheme is presented within this paper.

Main body of abstract

Various types of lighting that can be fitted to wind turbines. Lights can be visible or infrared, steady or flashing and have various intensities. Stakeholders such as airports and emergency services can require lighting schemes for safety reasons. This is what leads to the requirement for wind farm lighting schemes in the first place. However, lighting schemes for wind farms can affect a broad spectrum of third parties, from local residents to surrounding observatories. Different interested parties and/or stakeholders can have different requirements. For example, military aviation concerns can sometimes be resolved using infrared lighting whereas this is not useful for pilots flying visually. These requirements and interests must inform the lighting scheme design if it is to meet safety requirements whilst still being cost-effective for a developer.

This paper also explores the changes in lighting rules that are applicable to turbines under particular circumstances. Turbines with a tip height above 150 metres and turbines that breach safeguarded surfaces must be lit, whereas shorter turbines that do not breach surfaces may or may not require individual lights. Further considerations explored within this paper are the issues around monitoring of lighting schemes and the responsible parties for remediation in the case of failure of the lighting system. The paper also considers the lighting requirements for meteorological masts, which can be harder to see from the air than the wind turbines themselves.

In order to illustrate the lighting rules and the practical approach required to design an optimal lighting scheme, worked examples are presented for three hypothetical wind farm layouts. In each case, a lighting scheme is designed based on the same approach, which accounts for the published guidance and practical experience of lighting requirements for existing wind farms. The examples illustrate how variances in terrain elevation and turbine heights relative to each other and to fixed values affect the overall scheme.


The paper concludes that, whilst there are published rules and guidelines that are applicable to lighting schemes for wind turbines, a pragmatic approach is required which must be informed by formal guidance, stakeholder requirements and practical considerations. The output of the approach is heavily influenced by the wind farm layout, the turbine sizes and the location of the wind farm relative to the surrounding environment and infrastructure.

Learning objectives
In order to design an effective and acceptable lighting scheme it is paramount that the local rules pertaining to lighting requirements are understood. These rules, which vary from one country to another, must be accounted for when designing the lighting scheme.