Conference programme

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Delegates are invited to meet and discuss with the poster presenters during the poster presentation sessions between 10:30-11:30 and 16:00-17:00 on Thursday, 19 November 2015.

Lead Session Chair:
Stephan Barth, ForWind - Center for Wind Energy Research, Germany
Danny Scrivener Pager Power Limited, United Kingdom
Danny Scrivener (1) F Kai Frolic (1) Mike Watson (1)
(1) Pager Power Limited, Great Cornard, United Kingdom

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Presenter's biography

Biographies are supplied directly by presenters at EWEA 2015 and are published here unedited

Danny specialises in assessing the effects of new renewable energy installations on infrastructure. He is an expert in assessing the effects of Glint and Glare from solar installations on airports, railway lines, highways and residences. Danny also undertakes complex wind farm assessments examining their impacts on airports, radio communications and radar systems. Danny was awarded an Environmental Science degree by the University of Nottingham and joined Pager Power in 2012.


Poster Download poster (12.16 MB)


New Radar Risk Methodology


This paper presents the methodology and process for identifying and quantifying radar impacts caused by proposed wind projects. This includes a comprehensive methodology for determining affected radar and resultant technical impacts upon all radar infrastructure. The reasoning behind this approach is also presented. The methodology outlined within the paper draws on guidance from Eurocontrol and the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). It is corroborated by a custom-built radar detectability model that has been calibrated against existing wind farms near aerodromes in the UK.


Accumulating an up-to date and accurate radar installation database is key for identifying potential wind turbine radar risks associated with a proposal. Accurate analysis of initial radar risks is involves identifying radar within their operational range and undertaking Line of Sight Analysis to each wind turbine location. This analysis incorporates terrain data, signal propagation and earth curvature. The distance to radar infrastructure, as well as the results of Radar Line of Sight analysis, is then considered to determine an overall ‘risk’ for the project going forward.

All of this data and knowledge of real world radar and wind turbine interactions has been incorporated and developed into an automated ‘Risk Assessment’. This report aids a developer’s understanding of all radar issues. This helps project management going forward whilst also identifying wind sites that will not be viable due to predicted radar based interference.

Main body of abstract

Establishing aviation issues early in the development cycle is paramount for establishing the likelihood of a wind project reaching fruition. Consultation responses from key aviation stakeholders can take weeks to months, and sometimes no response is received until an application is officially submitted. This varies from stakeholder and country alike, however the automated Risk Assessment can deliver rapid and accurate results for any proposed wind development from all radar types.

The output of this modelling accurately defines a maximum turbine size that will not cause technical effects. Objections are often based on less detailed assessment and generally give a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer. The benefit of the model presented within this paper is the quantification of a suitable alternative when an impact is identified.

The final step in identifying the proposed radar impact is Radar Detectability Analysis. The methodology has been specifically designed for wind turbine and radar interactions. The model incorporates a radar parameter known as ‘beam switching’ and detectability thresholds, whilst it is also calibrated against real world wind turbine and radar data.


Identifying aviation risks early within the wind project timeline has many benefits to a developer. It maximises developer productivity whilst also safeguarding against unnecessary expenditure and delays. The Risk Assessment and Radar Detectability Analysis offer a best approach for understanding and managing radar risk.

Learning objectives
Radar objections that are not addressed will prevent a wind project being built. Therefore, identification and pro-active management of radar issues will reduce unnecessary spending and wasted time. It is also important to understand that initial stakeholder responses are not always correct. This is true for initial ‘objections’ and ‘no objections’ because a stakeholder may wish to change their stance due to the continuously changing wind turbine radar landscape. As a developer it therefore important to identify and understand what radar may be affected and why an objection/no objection has been received. With each radar type, the risks associated with an objection vary.

This means that an understanding of any predicted impact will help the decision making process for any proposed wind project going forward.