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Delegates are invited to meet and discuss with the poster presenters in this topic directly after the session 'Storage & grid integration' taking place on Wednesday, 12 March 2014 at 16:30 -18:00. The meet-the-authors will take place in the poster area.

José Ignacio Berasain Gamesa, Spain
Co-authors:
Jos Ignacio Berasain (1) F P
(1) Gamesa, Sarriguren, Spain

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Abstract

Fast WF controller for wind power plants compliance of grid codes

Introduction

In the recent years, Gamesa has been aware of the difficulties presented in wind farms for complying with the great variety&quantity of requirements for allowing an effective connection to the grid of the wind farms.

Some of the most demanding Grid Codes ask for fast response at wind farm level when transients appear in the electrical grid where the wind farm is connected, in the same way the traditional generators do. The wind farm response has to be not only fast, but robust and predictable too, providing a proper response at any operation point and validated simulation models.

Approach

Due to the unique characteristics of each wind farm (different wind turbine models, unit number, wind farm electrical equipment and grid characteristics) Gamesa has developed a complete control solution able to comply the more demanding Grid Codes when used in a great variety of wind farms connected to different types of grids. This solution includes a new wind farm controller using the advanced capabilities of the newer Gamesa turbines (2MW, 5MW), avoiding at a minimum the requirements for the electrical equipment to be installed out of the turbine.

Main body of abstract

The wind farm level solution developed by Gamesa for fast grid requirements compliance considers grid connection issues in different stages of wind farm life cycle:

1. Wind farm grid connection approval, where a clear, fully validated simulation model has to be used
2. Wind farm detailed design, where electrical equipment of the Balance of Plant has to be defined in detail using appropriated calculation&simulation tools and considering wind turbines capabilities.
3. Grid requirements field test, where wind farm behaviour is tested under specific test
4. Wind farm operation, where wind farm behaviour must be grid compliant under “real life” conditions, assuring at the same time proper behaviour of the wind farm assets (turbines and Balance of Plant equipment)

The complete wind farm behaviour is defined by different components, and all of them have to be carefully considered in order to achieve a grid compliant, cost-effective solution:

1. Wind turbine: Q production capability (static limits and dynamic performance), P dynamic. Gamesa has developed new turbines as 5MW with enhanced capabilities
2. Balance of Plant electrical equipment (MV cables, HV/MV transformer, HV line, Q production equipment as capacitor banks, shunt reactors or Statcom if necessary)
3. Wind farm controller (and communication architecture): Gamesa has developed the CPC controller as the heart of the wind farm dynamic behaviour

The performance of a real wind farm including G10X 4,5MW turbines and the CPC controller will be included, showing simulation results and field test results for fast voltage control and fast P control


Conclusion

Example of field results for V control according to fast requirements (UK, Finland):

Reaction time < 200 msec:  130 – 150 msec
Response time 90% < 1 sec:  600 – 800 msec
Settling time ±5% < 2 sec:  1 sec

These results have been recorded at Point of Common Coupling of the wind farm (220kV).

Grid Codes of UK, Finland and others requiring fast response are complied



Learning objectives
1. Introduce grid connection requirements related with wind farms fast reaction requirements
2. Introduce wind turbine manufacturers challenge for complying fast grid connection requirements due to the variety of each wind farm and grid
3. Present the Gamesa solution for fast wind farm connection requirements
4. Present the simulation results for the Gamesa solution
5. Present the field results for the Gamesa solution